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Basketball

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happyboy1992
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Registration date : 22/08/2007

Basketball

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 19/2/2008, 11:05 pm

History of Basketball
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In early December 1891, Dr. James Naismith, a Canadian physical
education student and instructor at YMCA Training School (today,
Springfield College) in Springfield, Massachusetts, USA, sought a
vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels
of fitness during the long New England winters to keep the students in
shape. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited
to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules
and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot (3.05 m) elevated track. In
contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its
bottom, and balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or
point scored, this proved inefficient, however, so a hole was drilled
into the bottom of the basket, allowing the balls to be poked out with
a long dowel
each time.The peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were finally
replaced by metal hoops with backboards. A further change was soon
made, so the ball merely passed through, paving the way for the game we
know today. A soccer ball was used to shoot goals. Whenever a person
got the ball in the basket, they would give their team a point.
Whichever team got the most points won the game.

Women's basketball began in 1892 at Smith College when Senda Berenson,
a physical education teacher, modified Naismith's rules for
women.Shortly after she was hired at Smith,she went to Naismith to
learn more about the game.Fascinated by the new sport and the values it
could teach, she organized the first women’s collegiate basketball game
on March 21, 1893, when her Smith freshmen and sophomores played
against one another.Her rules were first published in 1899 and two
years later Berenson became the editor of A.G. Spalding’s first Women's
Basketball Guide, which further spread her version of basketball for
women.

By the 1950's basketball had become a major college sport, thus having
the way for a growth of interest in professional basketball. In 1959 a
basketball Hall of Fame was founded in Springfield, Massachusetts. Its
rosters include the names of great players, coaches, referees and
people who have contributed significantly to the development of the
game.

International basketball

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XX. Olympic games Munich 1972 Krešimir Ćosić of Yugoslavia (blue shirt) vs. Petr Novicky of Czechoslovakia


The International Basketball Federation was formed in 1932 by eight
founding nations: Argentina, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Italy, Latvia,
Portugal, Romania and Switzerland.
At this time, the organization only oversaw amateur players. Its
acronym, in French, was thus FIBA; the "A" standing for amateur.





Basketball was first included in the Olympic Games
in 1936, although a demonstration tournament was held in 1904. This
competition has usually been dominated by the United States, whose team
has won all but three titles, the first loss in a controversial final
game in Munich in 1972 against the Soviet Union. In 1950 the first FIBA
World Championship for men was held in Argentina. Three years later,
the first FIBA World Championship for Women was held in Chile. Women's
basketball was added to the Olympics in 1976, with teams such as Brazil
and Australia rivaling the American squads.

FIBA dropped the distinction between amateur and professional
players in 1989, and in 1992, professional players played for the first
time in the Olympic Games. The United States' dominance continued with
the introduction of their Dream Team.
However, with developing programs elsewhere, other national teams
started to beat the United States. A team made entirely of NBA players
finished sixth in the 2002 World Championships in Indianapolis, behind
Yugoslavia, Argentina, Germany, New Zealand and Spain. In the 2004
Athens Olympics, the United States suffered its first Olympic loss
while using professional players, falling to Puerto Rico (in a 19-point
loss) and Lithuania in group games, and being eliminated in the
semifinals by Argentina. It eventually won the bronze medal defeating
Lithuania, finishing behind Argentina and Italy.

Rules and regulations






Games are played in four quarters of 10 (international) or 12
minutes (NBA). College games use two 20 minute halves while most high
school games use eight minute quarters. Fifteen minutes are allowed for
a half-time break, and two minutes are allowed at the other breaks. Overtime
periods are five minutes long. Teams exchange baskets for the second
half. The time allowed is actual playing time; the clock is stopped
while the play is not active. Therefore, games generally take much
longer to complete than the allotted game time, typically about two
hours.

Five players from each team (out of a twelve player roster) may be
on the court at one time. Substitutions are unlimited but can only be
done when play is stopped. Teams also have a coach,
who oversees the development and strategies of the team, and other team
personnel such as assistant coaches, managers, statisticians, doctors
and trainers.
For both men's and women's teams, a standard uniform consists
of a pair of shorts and a jersey with a clearly visible number, unique
within the team, printed on both the front and back. Players wear
high-top
sneakers that provide extra ankle support. Typically, team names,
players' names and, outside of North America, sponsors are printed on
the uniforms.
A limited number of time-outs, clock stoppages requested by a coach
for a short meeting with the players, are allowed. They generally last
no longer than one minute unless, for televised games, a commercial
break is needed.

The game is controlled by the officials consisting of the referee
("crew chief" in men's college and the NBA), one or two umpires
("referees" in men's college and the NBA) and the table officials. For
college, the NBA, and many high schools, there are a total of three
referees on the court. The table officials are responsible for keeping
track of each teams scoring, timekeeping, individual and team fouls, player substitutions, team possession arrow, and the shot clock.







Since the 1980s, more specific positions have evolved, namely:






  1. point guard:
    usually the fastest player on the team, organizes the team's offense by
    controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right player
    at the right time
  2. shooting guard: creates a high volume of shots on offense; guards the opponent's best perimeter player on defense
  3. small forward:
    often primarily responsible for scoring points via cuts to the basket
    and dribble penetration; on defense seeks rebounds and steals, but
    sometimes plays more actively
  4. power forward:
    plays offensively often with his back to the basket; on defense, plays
    under the basket (in a zone defense) or against the opposing power
    forward (in man-to-man defense)
  5. center: uses size to score (on offense), to protect the basket closely (on defense), or to rebound.




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