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English for everyday

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happyboy1992
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Người bí ẩn

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 25
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y English for everyday

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 23/8/2007, 12:37 pm

1.Tag question
A tag question is a question we can add to the end of a statement.

The basic rules for forming the two-word tag questions are as follows:

* the subject in the statement matches the subject in the tag
* the auxiliary verb or verb to be in the statement matches the verb used in the tag
* if the statement is positive, the tag is usually negative and vice versa

Compare the following:
* You've posted my letters, haven't you?
* You won't forget to check my emails, will you?
* You're sad that I'm going, aren't you?
* You aren't going to cry when I leave, are you?

When present and past simple tenses appear in positive statements, normally no auxiliary verb is used, but we use the auxiliaries does, do or did in the tag. In negative statements in the present or past simple, the auxiliaries doesn't, don't or didn't are, of course, already present. Compare the following:

* You play tennis on Thursdays usually, don't you?
* And Jack plays with you, doesn't he?
* You didn't play last Thursday, did you?

When we use the there is structure, there is reflected in the tag:

* There's nothing wrong, is there?
* There weren't any problems when you talked to Jack, were there?

Something / nobody /etc

When no one, somebody, something, etc is the subject in the statement, we use it in the tag to refer to something or nothing and they in the tag to refer to e.g. someone or nobody:

* Something happened at Jack's house, didn't it?
* No one phoned, did they?
* Somebody wanted to borrow Jack's bike, didn't they? Who was it?

When to use tag questions

We use tag questions, Ahmad, to check information or to ask for agreement. If we use a rising intonation in the tag, we do not know or are not quite sure of the answer. If we use a falling intonation in the tag, we are seeking the agreement of the person we are talking to.

We can reply to tag questions either with simple yes/no answers (negative tags normally expect a yes answer and positive tags normally expect a no answer) or by using yes/no + auxiliary verb.

In these examples, use a rising intonation in the tag. It is a genuine question. You are not sure what the answer will be.

* You haven't seen my tennis shoes, have you? ~ No, I'm sorry. I haven't.
* I couldn't borrow yours by any chance, could I? ~ No. They wouldn't fit you.

In these examples, use a falling intonation in the tag. You are simply seeking agreement.

* It's been a lovely day today, hasn't it? ~ Yes, it has. Gorgeous.
* It was a lovely wedding, wasn't it? ~ Wonderful!
* I thought Sue looking stunning in her wedding dress, didn't she? ~ Yes, she did. Absolutely stunning.
* It's a shame the day is over, isn't it? ~ Yes, it is.

tag questions - special features

positive statement - positive tag

We sometimes use a positive tag with a positive statement when we want to express surprise or particular interest:

* I shall be staying at my favourite hotel - the five-star hotel in Windsor. ~ Oh, you've stayed there before, have you?

* And I'm having supper there with the Australian tennis ace, Lleyton Hewitt. ~ Oh, so you know Lleyton Hewitt, do you?

imperative sentences and let's

After imperatives, we sometimes add will you? or won't you? when we want people to follow our advice:

* Don't stay there long, will you?
* And do take care, won't you?
After let's we sometimes add shall we? when we are making a suggestion:
* Let's have buttered scones with strawberry jam for tea, shall we?

Omission of pronoun subject and auxiliary verb

In very informal speech, we sometimes leave out pronoun subjects, auxiliary verbs and verb to be in the statement. Compare the following:

* Awful weather, isn't it? (= It's awful weather, isn't it?)
* Keeping well, are you? (=You're keeping well, are you?)
* Nobody at home, is there? (=There's nobody at home, is there?)


Được sửa bởi ngày 4/1/2008, 6:49 pm; sửa lần 3.
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happyboy1992
Người bí ẩn
Người bí ẩn

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 25
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 27/8/2007, 5:00 pm

At, on and in are the main prepositions in English indicating position. And I think there is some logic for the preference for one of them over the other two in given situations, Javier.

Generally speaking:

* in is used to specify position inside larger areas;
* on is used to specify position on a line or continuum;
* at is used to specify position in a larger place.

Compare the following:

* 'They were walking on the beach.'
* 'They were playing in the sand.'
* 'They were lying on the warm sand, reading their books.'

In the first example, we imagine people at a certain point on their walk along the beach; in the second example a group of children surrounded by sand and having fun in the sand, and in the third example, older children or adults lying on top of the sand, so on is most appropriate here.
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conan
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Thành viên cao cấp

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 220
Age : 25
Nghề : Ban cán sự bộ môn Tin học
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 23/08/2007
Tên thật : Đình Thanh

chu y Passive voice

Bài gửi by conan on 28/8/2007, 10:05 pm

Born

When talking abut the birth of specific people of things we use the passive form "to be born". For example:
- I was born in Iran.
- The twins were born just last year.

Get

Get can be used instead of to be in situations where something happens. For example:
- Our flight got cancelled = Our flight was cancelled.
- I got paid today = I was paid today.

Get can't be used with general situations and state verbs (verbs that express a state, not an action). For example:
- He is liked by a lot of people. - OK
- He gets liked by a lot of people. - Incorrect.
- She is known to be a hard-working employee. - OK
- She gets known to be a hard-working employee.- Incorrect
Get is used more often in informal English.
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conan
Thành viên cao cấp
Thành viên cao cấp

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 220
Age : 25
Nghề : Ban cán sự bộ môn Tin học
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 23/08/2007
Tên thật : Đình Thanh

chu y Preposition of time

Bài gửi by conan on 28/8/2007, 10:16 pm

Prepositions of Time

Prepositions of time show the time something happens. For example: "I get up at 7.00" shows the time I get up.

Some of the most common prepositions of time are: in, on, at, from, to.

In

In is used for morning, afternoon, and evening. For example:
- I study Japanese in the afternoon.
- He gets up early in the morning.

In is also used for other periods of time, including months, seasons, years, centuries, and ages. For example:
- My birthday is in March.
- The Portuguese came to Japan in 1542.
- Flowers grow in spring.

On

On is almost always used for some kind of day. For example:
- My birthday is on March 29th.
- I go to church on Sunday.
- We visit my family on New Year's Day.
Compare: He gets up early in the morning.
But: He gets up early on Monday morning.

At

At is used for a particular time. For example:
- I study Spanish at 2.00.
- He gets up at 7.30.
- I come home at lunchtime.

At is also used for used for night.
Compare: I sleep in the afternoon.
But: I sleep at night.

From - to

From and to are used to show the start and end of a defined period of time. For example:
- I work from 9.00 to 5.00.
- Our vacation is from January 5th to February 1st.
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conan
Thành viên cao cấp
Thành viên cao cấp

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 220
Age : 25
Nghề : Ban cán sự bộ môn Tin học
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 23/08/2007
Tên thật : Đình Thanh

chu y Gerunds & Infinitives: Distinct Difference in Meaning

Bài gửi by conan on 28/8/2007, 10:17 pm

Gerunds and Infinitives: Distinct difference in meaning

These verbs can be followed by gerunds or infinitives but with a change in meaning.

forget / regret / remember

When these verbs are used with a gerund they refer to something that happened before a certain time. When they are used with an infinitive they refer to something that happens at or after a certain time.

forget

Forget with the gerund is often used with never for a memorable previous action.
- I'll never forget going to Japan.

Forget with the infinitive means something happens at or after a certain time.
- Don't forget to meet me at 5.00.

regret

Regret with the gerund refers to a previous action.
- I don't regret leaving my job.

Regret with the infinitive is used to give bad news in a formal, polite way. It's often used with the verbs to say, to announce, to tell you and to inform you.
- We regret to inform you the interview is cancelled.

remember

Remember with the gerund refers to a previous action.
- I remember meeting you last year. (I met you before now).

Remember with the infinitive is used for something that happens at or after a certain time.
- Please remember to close the door. (in the future please close the door.)

go on

Go on with the gerund means to continue an action in progress. For example:
- I want to go on studying here.

Go on with the infinitive means to do something new. For example:
- After university, he went on to study law.

mean

mean with the gerund shows negative consequence. For example:
- You can buy a new car, but it means spending a lot of money.

mean with the infinitive shows intention.
- He means to leave his job next month.
- I didn't mean to make you angry.

try

Try with the gerund is used for suggestions.
- "I need to lose weight." "Try exercising and eating healthy food".
- "I'm really hot." "Try sitting here, it's much cooler."

Try with the infinitive means to attempt something.
- I tried to lift it but I can't.
- I'll try to finish this by tomorrow morning.


stop

stop with the gerund means to end an action.
- I stopped eating fast food last year.
- I can't stop loving you.
- Stop being so annoying!

stop with the infinitive means to interrupt an action.
- I was walking to the subway station, and I stopped to say "Hi" to my friends.
- I was working at home, and I stopped to answer the 'phone.

come

come with the gerund means movement with a sense of surprise or excitement.
- The ball came flying toward me - it almosty hit me on the head!
- Don't come running to me! (this means don't expect sympathy)

come with the infinitive means a change in perception.
- I thought he wasn't smart, but I came to realize he's very talented.
- I didn't like teaching, but I came to like it.
come with the infinitive can also mean just reason.
- Why did you come? - I came to watch a movie.

help

help is often used with an infinitive.
- I helped to make dinner.
help is also used without to, especially in American conversational English.
- I helped make the dinner.
help is also used with with and the gerund.
- I helped with making the dinner.
These three usages have similar meanings.

Help with the gerund is also used with can't to mean a reaction beyond the subject's control.
- I can't help laughing.
- Those kids are noisy, but I can't help liking them.
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conan
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Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 220
Age : 25
Nghề : Ban cán sự bộ môn Tin học
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 23/08/2007
Tên thật : Đình Thanh

chu y Gerunds & Infinitives: Verb+Gerund or Infinitive

Bài gửi by conan on 28/8/2007, 10:19 pm

Gerunds and Infinitives: Verb + Gerund or Infinitive

Some verbs can be followed by an infinitive or a gerund. These verbs in turn can be subdivided into two groups, verbs with little difference in meaning, and verbs with a distinct change in meaning.

Verb + Gerund or Infinitive: Little difference in meaning.

Here are some common verbs that can be followed by gerunds or infinitives with little change in meaning. A change of meaning may still exist however, as there are almost limitless combinations of verbs and gerunds/infinitives.

begin - She began to sing. - He began working here last year.
bother - Don't bother to wash the dishes. I'll do it. - Don't bother washing the dishes. I'll do it.
continue - You can continue to live here for 6 months. - You can continue living here for 6 months.
start - I started to learn the clarinet when I was 8. I started learning the clarinet when I was 8.

love / like / hate /prefer

These four verbs use the gerund for situations or actions in progress. The infinitive is used for factual information.

hate
- I hate working at my new job (I'm working there now.)
- I hate to work on Sundays. (specific time and situation)

like
- I like playing the piano. (I like the process and feeling of playing the piano.)
- I like to play the piano. (It's a fact I like to play the piano.)

love
- I love living in the country. (I'm probably living there now.)
- I love to live in the country. (Generally speaking I like the country, maybe I'm not living there now.)

prefer
- I prefer to study by myself. (Sounds factual)
- I prefer studying by myself. (Sounds more personal, perhaps I'm studying now.)

These verbs are also often used with would and the infinitive, and refer to specific situations. For example:
- I would love to go to China.
- We would prefer to meet at 7.00.

Allow / permit

Allow and permit have one pattern for gerunds and another for infinitives.
allow + gerund - My teacher doesn't allow eating in class.
allow + object + infinitive - My teacher doesn't allow us to eat in class.
permit + gerund - My teacher doesn't permit eating in class.
permit + object + infinitive - My teacher doesn't permit us to eat in class
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conan
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Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 220
Age : 25
Nghề : Ban cán sự bộ môn Tin học
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 23/08/2007
Tên thật : Đình Thanh

chu y Gerunds and Infinitives: Verb+Gerund / Verb+ Infinitive

Bài gửi by conan on 28/8/2007, 10:20 pm

A gerund is a verb that functions as noun. For example:
- I enjoy playing tennis. I enjoy play tennis" is incorrect.
- We practice speaking English every day.
- They just bought a new swimming pool.

In English the infinitive is made of to and the verb. For example:
- I want to learn a new language.
- You forgot to close the door.

Verbs are often followed by infinitives or gerunds and choosing which to use has few fixed rules, it depends mainly on the individual verb.

Verb + Gerund

Here are some common verbs that can be followed by gerunds, but not infinitives.

admit - He admitted taking the money.
celebrate - We celebrated winning the competition.
deny - The government denied spending too little on education.
dislike - I dislike complaining.
enjoy - She enjoys meeting her friends.
finish - I finished working there last month.
imagine - I imagine being a waitress is a difficult job.
keep - Where are my keys? I keep losing them.
mind - I don't mind waiting, we've got time.
miss - I miss talking with my sisters.
remember - Do you remember going to Italy?
risk - Jeff's always late. He risks losing his job.
stop - Don't stop singing, it's really nice.
suggest - I suggest having lunch first.

Gerunds are also used after some phrasal verbs. For example:
- If you keep on doing the same thing, you'll get the same results.
- She wants to give up drinking coffee.

Verb + Infinitive

Below are some common verbs that can be followed by infinitives, but not usually gerunds.

aim - I'm aiming to finish this book by the end of March.
afford - I can't afford to buy new clothes.
agree - My boss agreed to give me a reference.
decide - We decided to have a baby.
deserve - You deserve to have a better score.
forget - Don't forget to lock the door.
hope - I hope to go to Harvard Business School.
learn - I learnt to read when I was 3 years old.
mean - I'm sorry, I didn't mean to make you angry.
need - You don't need to study a lot, you need to study a little for a long time.
offer - He offered to help me carry these bags.
plan - They plan to go abroad next year.
pretend - He's pretending to be sick.
promise - She promised to be here on time.
refuse - Why do they always refuse to listen?
seem - She seems to be really intelligent.
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conan
Thành viên cao cấp
Thành viên cao cấp

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 220
Age : 25
Nghề : Ban cán sự bộ môn Tin học
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 23/08/2007
Tên thật : Đình Thanh

chu y Past Simple or Present Perfect?

Bài gửi by conan on 28/8/2007, 10:27 pm

Choosing whether to use the Present Perfect or Past Simple usually depends on whether a definite or indefinite time is used. If a definite past time is used, use the Past Simple, and if there is no time given use the Present Perfect. Examples below are split into two groups, single events and multiple events.

Single Events

- I went to America in March. - This sentence has a definite past time, so the Past Simple is used.
- I've been to America. - Here the time is not important, what is important is the fact I went.

- I read this book last week. - Last week I started and finished this book.
- I've read this book. - Here also the time is not important, what is important is the fact I've already read the book.

The Present Perfect can however be used with a period of time that isn't finished yet. For example:
- I've been to the doctor today. - Today is not finished, so this is correct.
- I went to the doctor today. - This is also correct, a statement about a past action.
- I've been to the doctor yesterday. - This is incorrect, yesterday is a finished period of time that does not continue into the present so we cannot use the present perfect here.

Multiple Events

The Past Simple and Present Perfect can similarly be used for multiple events. For example:
- I went to America three times last year. - Here the time is important.
- I've been to America three times. - Here the time is not important, it's the fact I've been that is important.

AS above you can also use the present perfect for multiple events when the time is not finished. For exmple:
- I've been to America three times this year. - This year isn't finished yet, so this is correct.
- I've been to America three times last year. - Incorrect, last year is a finished time period, so you can't use the Present Perfect.
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happyboy1992
Người bí ẩn
Người bí ẩn

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 25
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 10/9/2007, 5:30 pm

1. For/to
For + noun or to + infinitive

To talk about the purpose of an action, we use a for + noun construction or a to + infinitive structure. Compare the following:

We stopped off at the Goose for a drink and then we carried on to embassy for dinner.

I’m going to Brussels next week for an interview. I hope to work for the UN.

Do you want to have a drink at the Goose before we go on to dine with the ambassador?

I’ve come to Dublin to attend a seminar and to meet the new members of the faculty. But now I’m leaving for Rome.

For + -ing

To talk about the purpose of something, we use a for + -ing construction:

- These double-strength paracetamols are good for getting rid of headaches.
- Are they suitable for backache too?

- What are these two knives used for?
- This one is for cutting bread and that one is just for slicing meat.
What…for?

Note that What…for? can be used in questions to talk about the purpose of both actions and things:

- You pinched me! What did you do that for?
- I wanted to see if you were awake

- What are these two buttons for?
- The blue one is for gaining access to the main menu and the green one is for quitting teletext.

Giving reasons and explaining behaviour

Note that the same constructions, for + noun and for + -ing, are used with thank, apologise and be / feel sorry: With be / feel sorry a to + infinitive structure is also possible. Compare the following:

Thanks for the lift. Thank you for driving me home.

South Western trains would like to apologise for the late arrival of this train and for the inconvenience this may cause you.

He really should apologise for spitting in his face. That sort of behaviour is unacceptable, even on a football field.

I’m sorry to have taken so long with this report.
I’m sorry for taking so long with this report.

- I feel sorry for the cleaners.
- I feel sorry for them too. They’ve got the thankless task of cleaning up all this mess.

Note also the way in which the for + -ing construction is used to explain the reasons for the following actions:

He was rewarded for handing in the purse.
He was criticised for not coming forward as a witness to the accident.
He was fined heavily for speeding on the motorway.
He was sent to prison for falsifying the accounts.
in order (not) to / so as (not) to + infinitive

Note that to + infinitive is one of the most common ways of expressing purpose. When we want to be explicit or sound more formal we can also use in order to or so as to. This structures are especially common before negative infinitives, in order not to and so as not to:

To get a better job I decided to take a computer course.
In order to get a better job I decided to take a computer course.

I left home early in order not to be late for the appointment.
I left the house early so as not be late for the job interview.
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happyboy1992
Người bí ẩn
Người bí ẩn

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 25
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 5/10/2007, 5:53 pm

If you borrow something from somebody, you take it with their permission and promise to return it in due course, at the end of a limited period usually. If you borrow £5,000 from the bank, you will owe them £5,000, plus interest on the period of time you have borrowed if for.

Consider the following:

* 'I borrowed five pounds from my brother and forgot to pay it back.'

* 'I always buy the books I want to read, although I agree it would be cheaper to borrow them from the library.'

* 'Many of his ideas are borrowed from other sources.'
If you lend somebody something, or lend something to somebody, then you give them something of yours for a limited period of time. If you lend someone some money, they will owe you the money.

Consider the following:

* 'She lent her sister her car for the weekend.' (NB: verb + indirect object + direct object)

* 'If you lend your coat to Philip, you’ll never see it again.' (NB: verb + direct object + indirect object)

* 'If you can lend me a hand with these reports, we might finish them by suppertime.'
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happyboy1992
Người bí ẩn
Người bí ẩn

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 25
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Wish

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 5/10/2007, 5:55 pm

the verb wish is used in a variety of different ways and hope cannot be used as a 'stand alone' verb in a sentence, other than in the expressions 'I hope so' or 'I hope not.'

Let's look at wish first of all.

In your 'Merry Christmas' example, or when you wish someone good luck or Happy Birthday, you are expressing the hope that they will have good luck in the future, often in connection with a particular event, or that they will enjoy their birthday which is to come. Thus we have expressions like:

* 'I wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year.'
* 'Remember it's Sarah's birthday tomorrow. Don't forget to wish her many happy returns.'
* 'They wished me all the best in my new job.'
* 'I wish you good health and every happiness in the New Millennium.'

As you suggest, wish is also used when you wish that something were the case or you would like it to be the case even though you know that it is impossible or unlikely. In this sense, the verb which follows wish has a past tense inflection. Thus we have:

* 'We wish you could be here.'
* 'He wished he hadn't said that, for Fiona was terribly upset.'
* 'It rained every day. I do wish I hadn't gone there for my holidays.'
* 'I wish you didn't have to work so hard.'

Wish, as in 'wish to', is also sometimes used as a slightly more formal alternative to 'want to'. So we have:

* 'They were very much in love and wished to get married as soon as it could be arranged.'
* 'I don't wish to see him ever again,' she said, five months after they were married.'
* 'He could do most of his work from home, if he wished.'
* 'I don't wish to interrupt (your conversation), but the potatoes are burning dry.'
* 'I don't wish to be rude, but that red dress really doesn't suit you.'
Now let's take a brief look at hope. We speak of people's 'hopes for the future' and hope normally signals future intentions. If you hope to do something, you want to do it and intend to do it if you possibly can.

Like wish it can be used with to, plus infinitive. So we might have:

* 'I hope to be a millionaire by the time I'm thirty.'
* 'I was hoping to catch the 5.30 train and would have caught it, if Jennifer hadn't phoned.'

However, when a new subject is introduced, hope must be followed by a clausal construction. Thus, we would find:

* 'I hope (that) she'll like these flowers.'
* 'Her mother hoped (that) Judith would become a doctor, but her heart was always set on the stage.'
* 'I hope (that) you won't think me rude, but that red dress that you're wearing definitely doesn't suit you.'
* 'They were stranded on the side of the mountain and hoped (that) the rescue team would reach them before nightfall.'

Hopes and wishes! It is my hope and wish that all of you out there reading this column will enjoy good health and every happiness in the New Millennium. Or, to put it in two other ways: I wish you good health and every happiness in the 21st Century. I hope you'll enjoy good health and every happiness in the 21st Century.


Được sửa bởi ngày 3/11/2007, 11:13 pm; sửa lần 1.
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happyboy1992
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Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 25
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Get/become

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 5/10/2007, 5:56 pm

Get, as we shall see, has many different meanings whereas become basically indicates development of some kind.

Get is more informal and is frequently used in speech; become is more formal and is more often used in writing.

Get/become + adjective
Become + noun

We cannot, however, use get with a noun, even though the meaning is 'grow' or 'develop into'. We have to use become in this sense:

* 'She was only seventeen when she became a beauty queen.'

* 'Texas became the twenty-eighth state of the USA in 1845.
Get + noun/pronoun

When we use get with a noun or a pronoun as a direct object, get usually means 'obtain', 'acquire', 'receive' or 'fetch'.

Become is impossible here:

* 'I got the highest marks in the class for my essay on Lord Byron.'

* 'I got my goldfish from the pet shop down the road.'

* 'I was getting about fifty emails every day when I was working on the project.'

* 'Could you get me a punnet of peaches from the supermarket?'

* 'Let me get you a drink. What'll you have?'


Được sửa bởi ngày 3/11/2007, 11:13 pm; sửa lần 1.
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happyboy1992
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Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 25
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Expressing views and opinions

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 5/10/2007, 5:58 pm

in my view / opinion

I think we would normally drop point of and simply say in his view (in my view / in their opinion / etc):

* In my view, birds should not be kept in cages.

* How important is it, in your view, that the twins should stay together? ~ In my opinion, it's very important.

If we want to use point of view, I think we would more often say from my point of view rather than according to my point of view. Both these expressions emphasise the position or angle you are judging the situation from:

* From my point of view it makes no difference whether you return on Saturday night or Sunday morning.

* From a political point of view, the agreement of the UN is extremely important.

* From the point of view of safety, always wear a helmet when you are on the building site.


to my mind / etc

In my view, from my point of view, in my opinion are all fairly formal ways of expressing your opinion characteristic of written English. Less formal equivalents more characteristic of spoken English, include the following:

to my mind: to emphasise that this is your opinion
reckon: usually to express an opinion about what Is likely to happen
feel: to express a strong personal opinion
if you ask me: to express an opinion that may be critical
to be honest (with you): to express a critical opinion without seeming rude
as far as I'm concerned: to express an opinion that may be different from others'

* To my mind the quality of their football is just not good enough.

* I reckon it'll rain later today. Let's go tomorrow.

* I feel she shouldn't be getting married so young.

* If you ask me, it's unreasonable to pay for something which should be free.

* To be honest (with you), I'm surprised you got into university with such low grades.

* As far as I'm concerned, the matter is over and done with and we can now move forward.



academic writing and expressing opinions

If you are required to write an academic essay in which you are asked to express an opinion (see below), useful alternatives to in my view include:

I think that…
It seems to me that…
I would argue that…
I do not believe that…
I am unconvinced that…
I do not agree that…

* How acceptable is it for wild animals to be kept in zoos?

* I believe that it is quite unacceptable for animals to be kept in zoos. It seems to me that when they are confined to a cage they never have enough room to move around. I would argue that it is kinder to allow a rare animal to die naturally in the wilds rather than to prolong its life artificially in a zoo.


making concessions

To achieve balance in any essay, it may be useful to incorporate opinions that are different from your own. Useful linking words and expressions include:

Of course, many / some people argue…
It is sometimes argued…
Admittedly…
While…

* It is sometimes argued that it is possible for conditions in the zoo to replicate the wild animal's natural habitat. While this may be feasible for smaller reptiles, it will never be possible, in my view, for the larger mammals which needs acres of space to roam around in.
clarifying an opinion

It may sometimes be necessary to explain a thought in greater detail. Useful linking expressions for doing this include:

By this I mean…
Here I'm referring to…
To be more precise…
That is to say…

* By spending money on confining wild animals to zoos, we are wasting resources. By this I mean there are more urgent economic problems to deal with: hospitals and schools should be our first priority.
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happyboy1992
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Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 25
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y call

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 5/10/2007, 5:59 pm

call

Yes, call is very frequently used in British English, as an alternative to ring or phone, meaning to make a phone call:

* I decided to call / ring / phone him at home as he's always in meetings at the office.

* Your wife called while you were in the meeting. Can you ring her back?

* If you need more information, you can call this number.

Do you also know the informal expression used in British English to give sb a bell, meaning to phone?

call = name / shout / etc

Note that call is also frequently used with these meanings:

* If it's a boy, they're going to call him Cedric Alexander Roderick or Car for short.

* This area is sometimes called the garden suburb because there's so much greenery around.

* Did you call me? ~ I called you three times. ~ Sorry, I didn't hear you because the hair dryer was on.

* If I call your name, please come to the front of the queue.

* He called me into his office because he wanted a private chat.
This train calls ( = stops) at all stations to London Victoria.


Được sửa bởi ngày 3/11/2007, 11:14 pm; sửa lần 1.
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happyboy1992
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Người bí ẩn

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 25
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y 'say' and 'tell'

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 3/11/2007, 10:57 pm

Say

Say is the standard verb which is used to indicate direct speech in any narrative - anecdotes, short stories, novels, etc. It is often used with other 'reporting' verbs, which may be more descriptive or more colourful than the all-purpose say and therefore preferred.
Compare the following:

* "What do you think?" asked Mary, holding up the wedding dress.
* "Oh, it looks lovely," they all chorused.
* "It smells a bit musty," ventured William after a moment's silence.
* "That's because it's been shut up in this wardrobe for the last twenty years," replied Jo.
* "I'm sure it'll be all right," said Vanessa encouragingly.

Say is also used to introduce indirect speech with a that clause. In the examples that follow, please note:

~ the conjuction that is usually not used, unless it is needed to emphasise what is being reported

~ say cannot be followed by a direct personal object

~ as with the direct speech examples above, other reporting verbs may be preferred

* She said (that) she was going out. (Not: She said me…)And she admitted (that) she might be late back.
* They said/mentioned (that) Carlos had behaved very strangely when they were in Rio.
* He said/insisted (that) he had been driving very slowly when the accident happened.
tell

If we use tell to report statements like those above in indirect speech, we must remember that tell has to be followed by a direct personal object:

* 'He told her (that) he loved her.' (Not: He told that he loved her.)

* 'They told us (that) they had already bought us a wedding present.'

* 'How can you stand there and tell me now that you're not going through with it?' she shouted.

Tell is often used with an object + infinitive to express orders, instructions, requests and advice.

Other reporting verbs can also be used in this way, although say cannot be used like this. Compare the following:

* 'He told them to stay on the path and not to wander off into the woods.' (Not: He said them…)

* 'I asked her to get me some apples.'

* 'They advised Gladys not to worry. Tom would be all right.

* 'They told/asked/advised/warned him to turn the music down as everybody else was already in bed and wanted to sleep.
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happyboy1992
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Người bí ẩn

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 25
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y foot, feet, leg

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 3/11/2007, 11:00 pm

We have a large number of idiomatic expressions in English which refer to various parts of the body. I'm not sure that I have come across the expression to have or go around with your head in the stars before, but we do have the expression to have or go around with your head in the clouds. If you have your head in the clouds all the time, you are an unrealistic sort of person, very much a day-dreamer. (Having your head in the stars may be a local variation on this.)

It is the direct opposite to say that your feet are on the ground. Somebody who has his feet on the ground has a sensible and realistic attitude to life. It is unlikely that the same person would have his head in the clouds and his feet on the ground, unless he were suffering from some kind of personality disorder!

foot, feet, leg

Here are some sentences with expressions involving leg(s), foot and feet (three of each). See if you know which part of the lower limb is needed for the expression in each one. Then check your answers with the answer key.

* He hardly ever puts a __________ wrong. He never seems to make any mistakes.
* My __________ hardly touched the ground. I was so busy.
* They have really fallen on their ___________ . They inherited a lot of money and bought a lovely holiday house in the Bahamas.
* He hasn't got a __________ to stand on. What he did was quite wrong and cannot be excused.
* Come on, shake a ___________ . We haven't got all day. We've got to finish this by lunchtime.
* He started off on the wrong ___________ by arriving late on his first day at work.
* The first ___________ of the journey was from Paris to Barcelona. The second _________ was from Barcelona to Rabat.
* I like to put my ____________ up after a hard day's work and spend the entire evening relaxing.
* You will have to put your __________ down. It's about time he learnt that he cannot have everything he wants.
Answers:

Spoiler:
* He hardly ever puts a foot wrong. He never seems to make any mistakes.
* My feet hardly touched the ground. I was so busy.
* They have really fallen on their feet. They inherited a lot of money and bought a lovely holiday house in the Bahamas.
* He hasn't got a leg to stand on. What he did was quite wrong and cannot be excused.
* Come on, shake a leg. We haven't got all day. We've got to finish this by lunchtime.
* He started off on the wrong foot by arriving late on his first day at work.
* The first leg of the journey was from Paris to Barcelona. The second leg was from Barcelona to Rabat.
* I like to put my feet up after a hard day's work and spend the entire evening relaxing.
* You will have to put your foot down. It's about time he learnt that he cannot have everything he wants.
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happyboy1992
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Người bí ẩn

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 25
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y brain, mind, head

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 3/11/2007, 11:00 pm

Here are nine more sentences with expressions which this time involve brain, mind and head (three of each). See if you know which is needed for the expression in each case. Then check your answers with the answer key.

* It was a really tricky mathematical problem that none of us could solve, but then I suddenly had a ____________ wave.
* I really can't get my ___________ round this. It's too complicated for me to understand.
* I forgot to phone you last night. I'm sorry. It slipped my __________ .
* I hadn't eaten all day and the champagne went straight to my ____________.
* I have an open ___________ about mixed marriages. There's no reason at all why they shouldn't work.
* He had set his ___________ on going to Australia to study and nothing was going to stop him.
* There is a real ___________ drain from England now. All our top scientists, engineers and academics are moving overseas to work.
* She managed to keep her _____________ despite the panic all around her.
* Let's _________ storm this idea to see if we can highlight as many aspects as possible.

Answers:

Spoiler:
* It was a really tricky mathematical problem that none of us could solve, but then I suddenly had a brainwave.
* I really can't get my head round this. It's too complicated for me to understand.
* I forgot to phone you last night. I'm sorry. It slipped my mind.
* I hadn't eaten all day and the champagne went straight to my head.
* I have an open mind about mixed marriages. There's no reason at all why they shouldn't work.
* He had set his mind on going to Australia to study and nothing was going to stop him.
* There is a real brain drain from England now. All our top scientists, engineers and academics are moving overseas to work.
* She managed to keep her head even though everyone else was panicking.
* Let's brainstorm this idea to see if we can highlight as many aspects as possible.
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happyboy1992
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Người bí ẩn

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 25
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Let

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 3/11/2007, 11:02 pm

let + infinitive

A very common usage of let is in the phrase let us or let's when we are making a suggestion involving others.

We say this instead of Why don't we…? or I suggest we… which is quite formal. It is often used with shall we? as a question tag.

Compare the following:

* Let's just have a cold salad for supper this evening, shall we?
* And let's go for a run before we eat!
OK. Let's do that!
* Let's forget I ever said that, shall we? I didn't mean to offend you.

When it is used with the negative there are two alternative versions to choose from: don't let's or let's not. Both are very common.

* Let's not get too involved in their argument. It's better if they sort it out themselves.
* Don't let's go to Sheila's party tonight. Let's just have a quiet evening at home

Let is also commonly used to make a suggestion to oneself in the phrase let me or to a third person in the phrase let him/her/them. Note also the usage with the infinitive of there is/there are.

Compare the following:

* Do you like this outfit?
Let me see. I like the orange dress but not with that hat.
* I'm going to sell my car. Do you want to buy it?
I'm not sure. Let me think about it.
* There's still a stain on this jumper.
Let me try to get it out with this stain remover.
* Can Joey and Phoebe stay overnight next weekend? Oh, please let them stay.
* Let there be no doubts in your minds that we shall win this battle.

Let = allow/permit

We can see from these last examples, particularly the Joey and Phoebe example, that let also means allow or permit. These are more formal alternatives and require to before the infinitive.

Compare the following:

* Let me say how pleased I am to see you here this evening.
* Allow me to say how pleased I am to see you here this evening.
* Permit me to say how pleased I am to see you here this evening.

* I wouldn't let them stay up after nine to watch the adult film on TV.
* I can't let you go to France without me.

Note that with the passive voice, we have to use permit or allow:

* We didn't let him go home until he had spoken to the Headteacher.
* He wasn't allowed/permitted to go home until he had spoken to the Headteacher.


let me know/ let me have

Finally, let is frequently used with know, where it means tell, and have, where it means send or give.

Compare the following:

* Please let us know as soon as possible whether you are able to accept our offer.
* If you had let me know earlier, I would have saved it for you.
* Can you let me have those reports by midday on Friday, please?
* Let me have half an hour to think about it and then I'll let you know.
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happyboy1992
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Người bí ẩn

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 25
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 3/11/2007, 11:04 pm

left = remaining

Here it is almost opposite in meaning and is used as a past participle normally at the end of the clause, often with there is/are or have got:

* I haven't got any cash left. Can you get the sandwiches?
* There were only two days' rations left, but they had to last for six days.
* Nothing was left of the castle. It had been completely destroyed.

leave = go (depart/quit/abandon)

As we saw with let, leave has a number of different meanings and uses.

Compare the following:

* The plane left early as everybody was on board half an hour before take-off. (= departed)
* Nobody leaves school at the age of sixteen now, like they used to. (= stops attending)
* Don't tell Maureen I'm leaving her. (= abandoning)
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happyboy1992
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Người bí ẩn

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 25
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 3/11/2007, 11:06 pm

agree - agree to
There is a complication in your example, Jolie, where both the -ing form and the to-inifnitive pattern appear possible:

* I cannot agree to share / to sharing an office with Ben.
* In no way can I agree to sharing / to share an office with Ben

The complication arises because there are two different forms of pretty much the same verb, agree and agree to. If we are using the phrasal verb, agree to, the -ing pattern is more likely. If we are using the non-phrasal verb, agree, the to-infinitive pattern is imperative. Compare the following:

* What have you agreed?
We've agreed to tidy our rooms when we get up, to clear the dishes from the table after eating and not to go out until we've finished our homework.

* What have you agreed to?
We've agreed to arriving punctually before the working day begins and to not leaving before five o' clock in the afternoon.
object to

Note that the opposite of agree to is object to and here only the -ing pattern is possible:

* What do you object to in her behaviour?
I object to her going out every evening and not telling me where she is going.
ook forward to something = anticipate something with interest

Look forward to is one of the many phrasal verbs in English in which an adverbial particle (forward) as well as a preposition (to) is combined with the stem verb to signify a particular meaning. What we are looking forward to can be exemplified as either as a noun phrase or as a verb-phrase with an -ing pattern

* Jill says she's not looking forward to Jack's party next weekend.
* I very much look forward to meeting you soon.
* They're looking forward to joining their children in Australia

There are many such three-part verbs, e.g.:

look back on = think back to
put up with = tolerate
come down with = fall ill with

There are a number of instances where such verbs end with the preposition to, e.g.:

face up to = confront
get round to = do something after some delay
get down to = concentrate on

Note that in such instances to is not part of any infinitive phrase. It is an integral part of the verb. And whatever it is that we face up to or get round to is normally expressed as either a noun phrase or as a verb phrase with an -ing pattern:

* I must get round to cleaning my car next weekend.
* And I must get down to reading Jack's article which he sent me two weeks ago
* I must face up to the fact that I'm never going to be promoted in this organisation.

Note that when verbs follow prepositions (any prepositions) the V-ing form is normally used, not the to-infinitive pattern:

* I managed to finish reading Jack's article by staying up till midnight.
* He's talking about getting it published in National Geographic magazine.
* Instead of going on holiday last summer, he undertook this arduous trip up the Amazon.
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happyboy1992
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Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 25
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y 'So do I' / 'me too'

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 3/11/2007, 11:08 pm

Me too works quite well in simple exchanges such as:

* 'I’m hungry - Me too.' OR 'So am I.'

* 'I’m feeling very sleepy.' 'Me too.'

* 'I think I’ll go to bed.' 'So will I.'

It’s not very common as a stand-alone phrase with other pronouns, apart from You too? as a question, registering surprise, as in:

* 'I failed my maths exam.' 'You too? So did I!'

We would be unlikely to say: He too or Her too or They too, although we can use this construction if it is part of a longer utterance, as in:

* 'Maggie couldn’t go and he too discovered that he was unable to attend the December board meeting owing to a prior commitment.'

Note that the converse of Me too is Nor me or Me neither:

* 'I don’t fancy climbing to the top of this mountain this afternoon.' 'Me neither.'

* 'I’m not going to Jane’s party on Saturday.' 'Nor me.'
Note that the so construction is used to agree with a positive statement and the nor or neither construction is used to agree with a negative statement. It can be used with all tense forms and all modal verbs, so you need to be careful to select the right auxiliary verb or modal. Consider the following:

* 'I can’t swim.' 'Nor can I.'

* 'They shouldn’t have said they could help him.' 'Neither should I.'

* 'We stayed at the Shangri-La in Penang.' 'What a coincidence! So did we.'

* 'Marjorie’s going to live in Edinburgh – near the Cathedral.' 'So’s Jack – opposite the National Gallery.'

* 'I hate travelling all the way to Scotland by coach.' 'So do I.'

* 'I was so tired by the time we got there.' 'So were the other passengers.'

* 'We haven’t forgotten that it’s Sid’s birthday next week.' 'Neither have we.'
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happyboy1992
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Người bí ẩn

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 25
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y so/such

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 3/11/2007, 11:09 pm

Remember:

such + noun
so + adjective
such + adjective + noun
so + adverb + adjective

The noun with such is normally preceded by the indefinite article:

* 'We had such a good time at Henry's party.'
* 'I've been working far too hard today and I've got such a headache now.'
* 'She really embarrassed me. She is such a fool.'
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happyboy1992
Người bí ẩn
Người bí ẩn

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 25
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y 'before' or 'ago'

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 3/11/2007, 11:11 pm

'before' - any time before now

Before means: at some unknown time before now. It does not say when. Therefore we would say:

I know that chap. I've met him somewhere before.
Have you been here before? ~ No, I've never been here before. This is my first time.

We normally use the present perfect tense because the effect of meeting or seeing someone or being somewhere is still felt in the present. Simple past is also possible because we are talking about unknown occasions in the past, but it is less likely:

I know that chap. I met him somewhere before.
Were you here before? ~ No, I was never here before. This is my first time.

'ago' - at a certain time before now

Ago tells us how long before the present time something happened. It tells us when and gives us a time or a date. Because we are referring to a specific time in the past, the simple past is used:

Your mother phoned five minutes ago. Can you phone her back?
I saw her for the first time at film festival in Cannes some twenty years ago.

'before' - at a certain time before then

Ago always counts back from the present time. Note that if we are counting back from a past time, before or earlier or previously are used, not ago:

I met him at the AIDS conference in Durban in December 2002 when he told me that he had contracted AIDS four years before. ( = 6 years ago)

Last year I went back to my hometown that I had left ten years before and discovered that the house I grew up in was no longer standing. (= left home 11 years ago)

Last year I returned to my hometown that I had left ten years ago and discovered that the house I grew up in had been demolished (= left home 10 years ago)

'before' - conjunction and preposition as well as adverb

Note that before can be used as a conjunction or preposition as well as an adverb.

If before is used as a conjunction, it often connects two clauses together which discuss past events. But note that it can also be used with a present tense in the subordinate clause to indicate future activity. Compare the following:

They left the dining table before I had finished my meal. How rude of them!
He knelt down to say his prayers before he got into bed.
I shall read all the reports before I decide what action to take.

It can also link clauses denoting habitual current activity with the simple present:

I always shave before I take a shower.
You must take off your shoes before you enter the mosque.

If before is used as a preposition, it usually refers to time, not to place when in front of is preferred. Compare the following:

To stay young and beautiful, try to get to bed before midnight each night. To stay in shape, I try to go for a jog and a swim in the sea every morning before breakfast.

There were so many tall people in front of me that I could see nothing of the procession as it passed by.
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happyboy1992
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Người bí ẩn

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 25
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 7/11/2007, 6:37 pm

None và No đều dùng được với cả danh từ số ít và số nhiều.
· Nếu sau None of the là một danh từ không đếm được thì động từ phải ở ngôi thứ 3 số ít. Nếu sau nó là một danh từ số nhiều thì động từ phải chia ở ngôi thứ 3 số nhiều.

None of the + non-count noun + singular verb
None of the + plural count noun + plural verb

None of the counterfeit money has been found.
None of the students have finished the exam yet.

· Nếu sau No là một danh từ đếm được số ít hoặc không đếm được thì động từ phải ở ngôi thứ 3 số ít. Nếu sau nó là một danh từ số nhiều thì động từ phải ở ngôi thứ 3 số nhiều

No + {singular noun / non-count noun} + singular verb
No + plural noun + plural verb

No example is relevant to this case.
No examples are relevant to this case.
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happyboy1992
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Người bí ẩn

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 25
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 7/11/2007, 6:40 pm

Danh từ số nhiều
Bảng sau là những danh từ bao giờ cũng ở hình thái số nhiều vì chúng bao gồm 2 thực thể nên các đại từ và động từ đi cùng với chúng cũng phải ở số nhiều.
scissors
shorts
pants
jeans
tongs
trousers
eyeglasses
pliers
tweezers

Nếu muốn chúng thành ngôi số ít phải dùng a pair of...
The pants are in the drawer.
A pair of pants is in the drawer.
These scissors are dull. (Cái kéo này cùn. Chú ý chỉ có 1 cái kéo nhưng cũng dùng với these)

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