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English for everyday

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happyboy1992
Người bí ẩn
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Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 24
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y English for everyday

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 23/8/2007, 12:37 pm

First topic message reminder :

1.Tag question
A tag question is a question we can add to the end of a statement.

The basic rules for forming the two-word tag questions are as follows:

* the subject in the statement matches the subject in the tag
* the auxiliary verb or verb to be in the statement matches the verb used in the tag
* if the statement is positive, the tag is usually negative and vice versa

Compare the following:
* You've posted my letters, haven't you?
* You won't forget to check my emails, will you?
* You're sad that I'm going, aren't you?
* You aren't going to cry when I leave, are you?

When present and past simple tenses appear in positive statements, normally no auxiliary verb is used, but we use the auxiliaries does, do or did in the tag. In negative statements in the present or past simple, the auxiliaries doesn't, don't or didn't are, of course, already present. Compare the following:

* You play tennis on Thursdays usually, don't you?
* And Jack plays with you, doesn't he?
* You didn't play last Thursday, did you?

When we use the there is structure, there is reflected in the tag:

* There's nothing wrong, is there?
* There weren't any problems when you talked to Jack, were there?

Something / nobody /etc

When no one, somebody, something, etc is the subject in the statement, we use it in the tag to refer to something or nothing and they in the tag to refer to e.g. someone or nobody:

* Something happened at Jack's house, didn't it?
* No one phoned, did they?
* Somebody wanted to borrow Jack's bike, didn't they? Who was it?

When to use tag questions

We use tag questions, Ahmad, to check information or to ask for agreement. If we use a rising intonation in the tag, we do not know or are not quite sure of the answer. If we use a falling intonation in the tag, we are seeking the agreement of the person we are talking to.

We can reply to tag questions either with simple yes/no answers (negative tags normally expect a yes answer and positive tags normally expect a no answer) or by using yes/no + auxiliary verb.

In these examples, use a rising intonation in the tag. It is a genuine question. You are not sure what the answer will be.

* You haven't seen my tennis shoes, have you? ~ No, I'm sorry. I haven't.
* I couldn't borrow yours by any chance, could I? ~ No. They wouldn't fit you.

In these examples, use a falling intonation in the tag. You are simply seeking agreement.

* It's been a lovely day today, hasn't it? ~ Yes, it has. Gorgeous.
* It was a lovely wedding, wasn't it? ~ Wonderful!
* I thought Sue looking stunning in her wedding dress, didn't she? ~ Yes, she did. Absolutely stunning.
* It's a shame the day is over, isn't it? ~ Yes, it is.

tag questions - special features

positive statement - positive tag

We sometimes use a positive tag with a positive statement when we want to express surprise or particular interest:

* I shall be staying at my favourite hotel - the five-star hotel in Windsor. ~ Oh, you've stayed there before, have you?

* And I'm having supper there with the Australian tennis ace, Lleyton Hewitt. ~ Oh, so you know Lleyton Hewitt, do you?

imperative sentences and let's

After imperatives, we sometimes add will you? or won't you? when we want people to follow our advice:

* Don't stay there long, will you?
* And do take care, won't you?
After let's we sometimes add shall we? when we are making a suggestion:
* Let's have buttered scones with strawberry jam for tea, shall we?

Omission of pronoun subject and auxiliary verb

In very informal speech, we sometimes leave out pronoun subjects, auxiliary verbs and verb to be in the statement. Compare the following:

* Awful weather, isn't it? (= It's awful weather, isn't it?)
* Keeping well, are you? (=You're keeping well, are you?)
* Nobody at home, is there? (=There's nobody at home, is there?)


Được sửa bởi ngày 4/1/2008, 6:49 pm; sửa lần 3.

happyboy1992
Người bí ẩn
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Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y brain, mind, head

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 3/11/2007, 11:00 pm

Here are nine more sentences with expressions which this time involve brain, mind and head (three of each). See if you know which is needed for the expression in each case. Then check your answers with the answer key.

* It was a really tricky mathematical problem that none of us could solve, but then I suddenly had a ____________ wave.
* I really can't get my ___________ round this. It's too complicated for me to understand.
* I forgot to phone you last night. I'm sorry. It slipped my __________ .
* I hadn't eaten all day and the champagne went straight to my ____________.
* I have an open ___________ about mixed marriages. There's no reason at all why they shouldn't work.
* He had set his ___________ on going to Australia to study and nothing was going to stop him.
* There is a real ___________ drain from England now. All our top scientists, engineers and academics are moving overseas to work.
* She managed to keep her _____________ despite the panic all around her.
* Let's _________ storm this idea to see if we can highlight as many aspects as possible.

Answers:

Spoiler:
* It was a really tricky mathematical problem that none of us could solve, but then I suddenly had a brainwave.
* I really can't get my head round this. It's too complicated for me to understand.
* I forgot to phone you last night. I'm sorry. It slipped my mind.
* I hadn't eaten all day and the champagne went straight to my head.
* I have an open mind about mixed marriages. There's no reason at all why they shouldn't work.
* He had set his mind on going to Australia to study and nothing was going to stop him.
* There is a real brain drain from England now. All our top scientists, engineers and academics are moving overseas to work.
* She managed to keep her head even though everyone else was panicking.
* Let's brainstorm this idea to see if we can highlight as many aspects as possible.

happyboy1992
Người bí ẩn
Người bí ẩn

Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Let

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 3/11/2007, 11:02 pm

let + infinitive

A very common usage of let is in the phrase let us or let's when we are making a suggestion involving others.

We say this instead of Why don't we…? or I suggest we… which is quite formal. It is often used with shall we? as a question tag.

Compare the following:

* Let's just have a cold salad for supper this evening, shall we?
* And let's go for a run before we eat!
OK. Let's do that!
* Let's forget I ever said that, shall we? I didn't mean to offend you.

When it is used with the negative there are two alternative versions to choose from: don't let's or let's not. Both are very common.

* Let's not get too involved in their argument. It's better if they sort it out themselves.
* Don't let's go to Sheila's party tonight. Let's just have a quiet evening at home

Let is also commonly used to make a suggestion to oneself in the phrase let me or to a third person in the phrase let him/her/them. Note also the usage with the infinitive of there is/there are.

Compare the following:

* Do you like this outfit?
Let me see. I like the orange dress but not with that hat.
* I'm going to sell my car. Do you want to buy it?
I'm not sure. Let me think about it.
* There's still a stain on this jumper.
Let me try to get it out with this stain remover.
* Can Joey and Phoebe stay overnight next weekend? Oh, please let them stay.
* Let there be no doubts in your minds that we shall win this battle.

Let = allow/permit

We can see from these last examples, particularly the Joey and Phoebe example, that let also means allow or permit. These are more formal alternatives and require to before the infinitive.

Compare the following:

* Let me say how pleased I am to see you here this evening.
* Allow me to say how pleased I am to see you here this evening.
* Permit me to say how pleased I am to see you here this evening.

* I wouldn't let them stay up after nine to watch the adult film on TV.
* I can't let you go to France without me.

Note that with the passive voice, we have to use permit or allow:

* We didn't let him go home until he had spoken to the Headteacher.
* He wasn't allowed/permitted to go home until he had spoken to the Headteacher.


let me know/ let me have

Finally, let is frequently used with know, where it means tell, and have, where it means send or give.

Compare the following:

* Please let us know as soon as possible whether you are able to accept our offer.
* If you had let me know earlier, I would have saved it for you.
* Can you let me have those reports by midday on Friday, please?
* Let me have half an hour to think about it and then I'll let you know.

happyboy1992
Người bí ẩn
Người bí ẩn

Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 3/11/2007, 11:04 pm

left = remaining

Here it is almost opposite in meaning and is used as a past participle normally at the end of the clause, often with there is/are or have got:

* I haven't got any cash left. Can you get the sandwiches?
* There were only two days' rations left, but they had to last for six days.
* Nothing was left of the castle. It had been completely destroyed.

leave = go (depart/quit/abandon)

As we saw with let, leave has a number of different meanings and uses.

Compare the following:

* The plane left early as everybody was on board half an hour before take-off. (= departed)
* Nobody leaves school at the age of sixteen now, like they used to. (= stops attending)
* Don't tell Maureen I'm leaving her. (= abandoning)

happyboy1992
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Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 3/11/2007, 11:06 pm

agree - agree to
There is a complication in your example, Jolie, where both the -ing form and the to-inifnitive pattern appear possible:

* I cannot agree to share / to sharing an office with Ben.
* In no way can I agree to sharing / to share an office with Ben

The complication arises because there are two different forms of pretty much the same verb, agree and agree to. If we are using the phrasal verb, agree to, the -ing pattern is more likely. If we are using the non-phrasal verb, agree, the to-infinitive pattern is imperative. Compare the following:

* What have you agreed?
We've agreed to tidy our rooms when we get up, to clear the dishes from the table after eating and not to go out until we've finished our homework.

* What have you agreed to?
We've agreed to arriving punctually before the working day begins and to not leaving before five o' clock in the afternoon.
object to

Note that the opposite of agree to is object to and here only the -ing pattern is possible:

* What do you object to in her behaviour?
I object to her going out every evening and not telling me where she is going.
ook forward to something = anticipate something with interest

Look forward to is one of the many phrasal verbs in English in which an adverbial particle (forward) as well as a preposition (to) is combined with the stem verb to signify a particular meaning. What we are looking forward to can be exemplified as either as a noun phrase or as a verb-phrase with an -ing pattern

* Jill says she's not looking forward to Jack's party next weekend.
* I very much look forward to meeting you soon.
* They're looking forward to joining their children in Australia

There are many such three-part verbs, e.g.:

look back on = think back to
put up with = tolerate
come down with = fall ill with

There are a number of instances where such verbs end with the preposition to, e.g.:

face up to = confront
get round to = do something after some delay
get down to = concentrate on

Note that in such instances to is not part of any infinitive phrase. It is an integral part of the verb. And whatever it is that we face up to or get round to is normally expressed as either a noun phrase or as a verb phrase with an -ing pattern:

* I must get round to cleaning my car next weekend.
* And I must get down to reading Jack's article which he sent me two weeks ago
* I must face up to the fact that I'm never going to be promoted in this organisation.

Note that when verbs follow prepositions (any prepositions) the V-ing form is normally used, not the to-infinitive pattern:

* I managed to finish reading Jack's article by staying up till midnight.
* He's talking about getting it published in National Geographic magazine.
* Instead of going on holiday last summer, he undertook this arduous trip up the Amazon.

happyboy1992
Người bí ẩn
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Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y 'So do I' / 'me too'

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 3/11/2007, 11:08 pm

Me too works quite well in simple exchanges such as:

* 'I’m hungry - Me too.' OR 'So am I.'

* 'I’m feeling very sleepy.' 'Me too.'

* 'I think I’ll go to bed.' 'So will I.'

It’s not very common as a stand-alone phrase with other pronouns, apart from You too? as a question, registering surprise, as in:

* 'I failed my maths exam.' 'You too? So did I!'

We would be unlikely to say: He too or Her too or They too, although we can use this construction if it is part of a longer utterance, as in:

* 'Maggie couldn’t go and he too discovered that he was unable to attend the December board meeting owing to a prior commitment.'

Note that the converse of Me too is Nor me or Me neither:

* 'I don’t fancy climbing to the top of this mountain this afternoon.' 'Me neither.'

* 'I’m not going to Jane’s party on Saturday.' 'Nor me.'
Note that the so construction is used to agree with a positive statement and the nor or neither construction is used to agree with a negative statement. It can be used with all tense forms and all modal verbs, so you need to be careful to select the right auxiliary verb or modal. Consider the following:

* 'I can’t swim.' 'Nor can I.'

* 'They shouldn’t have said they could help him.' 'Neither should I.'

* 'We stayed at the Shangri-La in Penang.' 'What a coincidence! So did we.'

* 'Marjorie’s going to live in Edinburgh – near the Cathedral.' 'So’s Jack – opposite the National Gallery.'

* 'I hate travelling all the way to Scotland by coach.' 'So do I.'

* 'I was so tired by the time we got there.' 'So were the other passengers.'

* 'We haven’t forgotten that it’s Sid’s birthday next week.' 'Neither have we.'

happyboy1992
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Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y so/such

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 3/11/2007, 11:09 pm

Remember:

such + noun
so + adjective
such + adjective + noun
so + adverb + adjective

The noun with such is normally preceded by the indefinite article:

* 'We had such a good time at Henry's party.'
* 'I've been working far too hard today and I've got such a headache now.'
* 'She really embarrassed me. She is such a fool.'

happyboy1992
Người bí ẩn
Người bí ẩn

Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y 'before' or 'ago'

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 3/11/2007, 11:11 pm

'before' - any time before now

Before means: at some unknown time before now. It does not say when. Therefore we would say:

I know that chap. I've met him somewhere before.
Have you been here before? ~ No, I've never been here before. This is my first time.

We normally use the present perfect tense because the effect of meeting or seeing someone or being somewhere is still felt in the present. Simple past is also possible because we are talking about unknown occasions in the past, but it is less likely:

I know that chap. I met him somewhere before.
Were you here before? ~ No, I was never here before. This is my first time.

'ago' - at a certain time before now

Ago tells us how long before the present time something happened. It tells us when and gives us a time or a date. Because we are referring to a specific time in the past, the simple past is used:

Your mother phoned five minutes ago. Can you phone her back?
I saw her for the first time at film festival in Cannes some twenty years ago.

'before' - at a certain time before then

Ago always counts back from the present time. Note that if we are counting back from a past time, before or earlier or previously are used, not ago:

I met him at the AIDS conference in Durban in December 2002 when he told me that he had contracted AIDS four years before. ( = 6 years ago)

Last year I went back to my hometown that I had left ten years before and discovered that the house I grew up in was no longer standing. (= left home 11 years ago)

Last year I returned to my hometown that I had left ten years ago and discovered that the house I grew up in had been demolished (= left home 10 years ago)

'before' - conjunction and preposition as well as adverb

Note that before can be used as a conjunction or preposition as well as an adverb.

If before is used as a conjunction, it often connects two clauses together which discuss past events. But note that it can also be used with a present tense in the subordinate clause to indicate future activity. Compare the following:

They left the dining table before I had finished my meal. How rude of them!
He knelt down to say his prayers before he got into bed.
I shall read all the reports before I decide what action to take.

It can also link clauses denoting habitual current activity with the simple present:

I always shave before I take a shower.
You must take off your shoes before you enter the mosque.

If before is used as a preposition, it usually refers to time, not to place when in front of is preferred. Compare the following:

To stay young and beautiful, try to get to bed before midnight each night. To stay in shape, I try to go for a jog and a swim in the sea every morning before breakfast.

There were so many tall people in front of me that I could see nothing of the procession as it passed by.

happyboy1992
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Người bí ẩn

Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 7/11/2007, 6:37 pm

None và No đều dùng được với cả danh từ số ít và số nhiều.
· Nếu sau None of the là một danh từ không đếm được thì động từ phải ở ngôi thứ 3 số ít. Nếu sau nó là một danh từ số nhiều thì động từ phải chia ở ngôi thứ 3 số nhiều.

None of the + non-count noun + singular verb
None of the + plural count noun + plural verb

None of the counterfeit money has been found.
None of the students have finished the exam yet.

· Nếu sau No là một danh từ đếm được số ít hoặc không đếm được thì động từ phải ở ngôi thứ 3 số ít. Nếu sau nó là một danh từ số nhiều thì động từ phải ở ngôi thứ 3 số nhiều

No + {singular noun / non-count noun} + singular verb
No + plural noun + plural verb

No example is relevant to this case.
No examples are relevant to this case.

happyboy1992
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Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 7/11/2007, 6:40 pm

Danh từ số nhiều
Bảng sau là những danh từ bao giờ cũng ở hình thái số nhiều vì chúng bao gồm 2 thực thể nên các đại từ và động từ đi cùng với chúng cũng phải ở số nhiều.
scissors
shorts
pants
jeans
tongs
trousers
eyeglasses
pliers
tweezers

Nếu muốn chúng thành ngôi số ít phải dùng a pair of...
The pants are in the drawer.
A pair of pants is in the drawer.
These scissors are dull. (Cái kéo này cùn. Chú ý chỉ có 1 cái kéo nhưng cũng dùng với these)
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Har Dy

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chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by Har Dy on 15/11/2007, 10:11 pm

Oh , nice English speaking.
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happyboy1992
Người bí ẩn
Người bí ẩn

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 24
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 3/12/2007, 7:12 pm

we looked at how to tell someone you're not happy about something and ask them to change their behaviour in a polite way, with phrases like 'Would you mind…?' In this programme, we look at more direct ways to tell someone you're unhappy with their behaviour - expressions that might come up in very informal contexts. Most the language you will learn in this programme sounds quite aggressive, so be careful about using it.

When you have listened to the programme, don't forget to practise what you've learned with the activity at the bottom of this page.

Listen - realmedia Download - mp3 (2 MB) Script (pdf - 22k)



Expressing your anger about something


I'm
(just)

fed up with
sick of
tired of
sick and tired of
having to do all your work for you!
the way you make so much noise at night!
your annoying friends!
you!
it!
Ihate the way you
can't stand the way you
always blame me!
leave a mess everywhere!
What really gets under my skin is
What really drives me crazy is

the way you lie about it.
your unhelpful attitude.
Complaining about something that someone often does/doesn't do



You
always...boss me around!
leave a mess in the kichen!
never...helped me with anything!
let me speak!
Telling someone to stop doing something that makes you angry
It's got to stop!
It can't carry on!


------------------------------------------------------------ Chữ ký của tôi ------------------------------------------------------------










Truy cập Công cụ Kiểm Tra Tốc Độ Đánh Máy và thử!
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happyboy1992
Người bí ẩn
Người bí ẩn

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 24
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Water/waters

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 10/12/2007, 6:57 pm

Put plenty of water in the bath!
Put plenty of peas in the soup!
Fill the bowls with water.
Fill the bowls with stones.
Now, peas and stones are countable nouns, so they can take both singular and plural forms, but as water is an uncountable noun it doesn’t alter, so we have one glass of water or two glasses of water. And this is probably the usage that you’re most used to hearing.
But in your example, you seem to be referring to a flood situation, and waters
is used to mean a specific body of water – that is, a lake, a river or
a sea. And the situation seems to describe a river that’s burst its
banks, or an area of land that’s been flooded by heavy rainfall. So in
this case, waters refers to the presence of a large body of
water, rather than the running water that we use from the tap. This is
a topical example, because many areas of the world have suffered
extreme floods this year.
As well as the example you give, we could also talk about UK fishing waters, which means an area of sea belonging to the UK, where it’s possible for UK boats to go fishing. And we also refer to fresh waters, meaning rivers, as opposed to salt or saline waters, which means the sea.
There are also some seafaring metaphors which use waters: if we say that someone is entering stormy waters or dangerous waters, it means they’re heading for troubled or difficult times.
And finally to take the waters
is an old-fashioned phrase which means to enjoy a relaxing stay in a
spa hotel, which is a hotel built over a natural hot spa or spring, so
that you can bathe and enjoy the health-giving waters, which sounds
like a wonderful idea to me!


------------------------------------------------------------ Chữ ký của tôi ------------------------------------------------------------










Truy cập Công cụ Kiểm Tra Tốc Độ Đánh Máy và thử!
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conan
Thành viên cao cấp
Thành viên cao cấp

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 220
Age : 25
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Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 23/08/2007
Tên thật : Đình Thanh

chu y Greet people

Bài gửi by conan on 15/12/2007, 10:25 am




How to greet people (in informal contexts)

There are all sorts of different ways to greet people. In this programme,
we learn some of the most popular and useful expressions for greeting friends
or other people in relaxed situations.
After you have listened to the programme, get some more practice with the quiz below.



Listen
- realmedia
Listen
- mp3 (2.1 MB)
Script
(pdf - 22 KB)




Download or subscribe to this programme's podcast




Saying hello
Hey Jane!
Hi Jane!
Alright, Jane!
Alright, mate!
Asking someone how they are
How are you?
How you doing?
How you going?
How's it going?
You alright?

Saying you are well
Good, thanks!
Fine, thanks!
Not bad, not bad!
Alright, thanks!
I'm OK!

Returning the question when someone
has asked if you are well

And you?
How about you?
What about you?


------------------------------------------------------------ Chữ ký của tôi ------------------------------------------------------------


Study english with BBC
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happyboy1992
Người bí ẩn
Người bí ẩn

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 24
Đến từ : MK
Nghề : Học sinh
Trường : Minh Khai
Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y As / Like

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 26/12/2007, 6:57 pm

Silvio Pinheiro from Brazil asks:

As / Like


Hello Samantha. Samantha, I’d like to know if you could tell me the difference between as and like in sentences like these:
If I could fly like a bird
and
I love you just as before
Could you tell me?

Listen and download
Real
mp3 (918 K)
Transcript
(45 K)

Samantha Hague answers:


Well thank you! What poetic examples you’ve given me to work with! If I could fly like a bird and I love you just as before.
Well, I think the main difference between like and as is in formality. Like is common in conversation in comparative metaphors; as
is still used in conversation, but it’s more frequent in written
English. I don’t think I can think of examples as romantic as yours
Silvio, but I’ll try! Here we go:
The view was just as I remembered it.
In conversation, we might say, The view was just like I remembered it.
Exercise is just as important as diet for good health.
In conversation, we might say: Exercise, just like diet, is important for good health.
But I think we’d use the as ... as structure to say something like She’s as lovely as her sister.
In all of these examples, two states or things are being compared:
the view before and now; exercise and diet; two sisters. We can see
that as is being used as a preposition to show comparison, and like is the informal equivalent.
And, to continue with like: as well as being a verb that we’re all familiar with (as in I do like you, Silvio), like has a couple of different meanings you may not be aware of. We can use like to give examples, where it means such as. Here we go:
Some consumer goods, like household electrical products, are cheaper to purchase than repair.
Many successful Broadway shows, like Chicago, Annie and Fame, have been turned into films.
We were looking for a good present for a five-year-old, like a bicycle or a remote controlled toy.
And finally Silvio, I’d like to tell you about another use of like, which is as a kind of filler or a speech marker. Listen to these examples, which are taken from conversation:
My brother is like really, really good on the electric guitar.
I’ve just got to get, like, one hundred more points to move onto the next level.
This kind of usage is very common in the speech of young people,
like my son. And I’m going to end my explanation here – thank you for
your question and I hope this has helped, Silvio!
Silvio Pinheiro responds:
Thank you very much Samantha. Bye.


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happyboy1992
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chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 26/12/2007, 7:01 pm





To, for, so that

In this programme we look at three ways to talk about the reason for doing something.


Our challenger is Selman Ozturt from Turkey. We ask Selman to imagine
that he's going camping - but why is he taking the items that he's
packed below?






Listen to the programme!
To, for, so that




To talk about purpose, or the reason why we do
things, we can use for + verb-ing, we can use the infinitive with to,
and we can use so that + subject + verb.
Noun or pronoun 'for' + verb-ing
I'm bringing some pots and pans...


for cooking


Action or event Infinitive with 'to'
We've got some water...


to make tea


Action or event 'so that' + subject + verb
I'm taking some extra blankets...



so that we don't get cold






Download Catherine's grammar explanation and table (pdf - 55 K)



Download this programme (mp3 - 1.8 MB)



Download or subscribe to this programme's podcast


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chu y should have

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 5/1/2008, 11:30 pm




Should have

In this programme we examine should have - a way of talking about regretable past actions.
Silvia Malkun from Colombia gets to grips with this grammar... and she explains to William why his wife is so angry with him!


Listen to the programme!
Should have




When we want to talk about mistakes we made in the past, we can use 'should have' with a past participle.

Positive and Negative:

subject should have / shouldn't have past participle
Matt

should have

worn

a clean shirt.
He shouldn't have been late.

Question form:
should / shouldn't subject have past participle
Should

Matt

have

worn
a clean shirt?
Shouldn't he have arrived early?



Download this programme (mp3 - 1.8 MB)


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chu y Cách sử dụng a number of, the number of

Bài gửi by conan on 12/1/2008, 10:33 am

A number of = “Một số những ...”, đi với danh từ số nhiều, động từ chia ở số nhiều.


A number of + plural noun + plural verb

A number of students are going to the class picnic (Một số sinh viên sẽ đi ...)
A number of applicants have already been interviewed.

The number of = “Số lượng những ...”, đi với danh từ số nhiều, động từ vẫn ở ngôi thứ 3 số ít.


The number of + plural noun + singular verb...

The number of days in a week is seven. (Số lượng ngày trong tuần là 7)
The number of residents who have been questioned on this matter is quite small.


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chu y One

Bài gửi by conan on 12/1/2008, 10:35 am

Nếu ở đầu câu đã sử dụng đại từ one thì các đại từ tương ứng tiếp theo ở mệnh đề dưới phải là one, one's, he, his.
<blockquote>
If one takes this exam without studying, one is likely to fail.
(Nếu một người không học bài mà đi thi thì anh ta rất dễ bị trượt)
If one takes this exam without studying, he is likely to fail.
One should always do one's homework.
One should always do his homework.
</blockquote>
Lưu ý một số người do cẩn thận muốn tránh phân biệt nam/ nữ đã dùng he or she, his or her nhưng điều đó là không cần thiết. Các đại từ đó chỉ được sử dụng khi nào ở phía trên có những danh từ chung chung như the side, the party.
<blockquote>
The judge will ask the defendant party (bên bị cáo- danh từ chung) if he or she admits the allegations.
</blockquote>


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chu y Những động từ dễ gây nhầm lẫn

Bài gửi by conan on 12/1/2008, 10:37 am

Những động từ ở bảng sau rất dễ gây nhầm lẫn về mặt ngữ nghĩa, chính tả hoặc phát âm.


Nội động từ
Nguyên thể Quá khứ (P1) Quá khứ phân từ (P2) Verb-ing
rise

lie

sit
rose

lay

sat
risen

lain

sat
rising

lying

sitting


Ngoại động từ
Nguyên thể Quá khứ (P1) Quá khứ phân từ (P2) Verb-ing
raise

lay

set
raised

laid

set
raised

laid

set
raising

laying

setting




  • To rise : Dâng lên, tự nâng lên, tự tăng lên.
    The sun rises early in the summer.
    Prices have risen more than 10% this year.
    He rose early so that he could play golf before the others.
    When oil and water mix, oil rises to the top.
  • To raise smt/sb: Nâng ai, cái gì lên.
    The students raise their hands in class.
    OPEC countries have raised the price of oil.
  • To lie: Nằm, ở, tại.
    To lie in: ở tại
    To lie down: nằm xuống.
    To lie on: nằm trên.
    The university lies in the western section of town.
    Don't disturb Mary, she has laid down for a rest.
    * Lưu ý: Cần phân biệt động từ này với to lie (nói dối) trong mẫu câu to lie to sb about smt (nói dối ai về cái gì):
    He is lying to you about the test.
  • To lay smt: đặt, để cái gì vào vị trí nào đó
    To lay smt on: đặt trên
    To lay smt in: đặt vào
    To lay smt down: đặt xuống.
    Don't lay your clothes on the bed.
    The enemy soldiers laid down their weapons and surrendered.

    * Lưu ý: Thời hiện tại của động từ này rất dễ ngây nhầm lẫn với quá khứ đơn giản của động từ to lie. Cần phải phân biệt bằng ngữ cảnh cụ thể.
  • To sit: ngồi
    To sit in: ngồi tại, ngồi trong.
    To sit on: ngồi trên (đã ngồi sẵn).
    To set = to put, to lay: đặt, để.
    We are going to sit in the fifth row at the opera.
    After swimming, she sat on the beach to dty off.
    Nobody has sat through as many boring lectures as Petes has.

    * Lưu ý: Phát âm hiện tại đơn giản của động từ này rất dễ lẫn với Simple past của to sit.
  • To set smt: đặt cái gì, bày cái gì, để cái gì
    The little girl help her father set the table every night.
    The botanist set his plants in the sun so that they would grow.
  • Một số các thành ngữ dùng với các động từ trên:

    • to set the table for: bầy bàn để.
      My mother has set the table for the family dinner.
    • to lay off (workers. employees): cho thôi việc, giãn thợ.
      The company had to lay off twenty-five employees because of a production slowdown.
    • to set (broken bone) in: bó những cái xương gẫy vào.
      Dr.Jacobs has set many broken bones in plaster casts.
    • to set one's alarm for: Đặt đồng hồ báo thức vào lúc.
      John set his alarm for six o'clock.
    • to set fire to: làm cháy
      While playing with matches, the children set fire to the sofa.
    • to raise (animals, plants) for a living: trồng cái gì, nuôi con gì bán để lấy tiền.
      That farmer raises chickens for a living.
    </li>


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chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by conan on 21/1/2008, 7:18 pm




Disgreements with auxiliaries

Last week, we looked at using auxiliaries to make short agreements
during a conversation. Now it's time to find out how to disagree using
them. To do this, William plays Beom's dad... will he succeed in
embarassing Beom in front of all his friends, or will Beom be able to
disagree correctly with William? Find out by listening to the
programme!



Listen to the programme!
Disagreements with auxiliaries






Using auxiliaries to disagree:


  1. Signal disagreement.
  2. Repeat the subject of the original statement as a pronoun.
  3. Use an auxiliary verb relative to the verb in the original sentence (negative – positive; positive – negative).
Statement Signal disagreement Pronoun Auxiliary
We both went to a graduation party.

No
we
didn't.
I was at the party with all my friends. No you weren't.
Joyce couldn’t find anybody to dance with. Yes she could.
We haven't got much time... Yes we have.


Download Catherine's grammar explanation and table (pdf - 51 K)

Download this programme (mp3 - 1.8 MB)


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happyboy1992
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chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 24/3/2008, 6:39 pm




Yummy and scrummy




Listen to Professor Crystal
Yummy and scrummy



Yummy and scrummy - childhood terms for the taste of food. I
remember using them when I was a kid. They're actually quite old -
well, a hundred years or so - they're late 19th century - is the first
time I've found a reference to them from 'yum, yum' - 'yummy' from
'yum, yum' - first, referring to delicious food, of course, and then to
attractive people. That became a usage in the 1990s, which was quite
fashionable for a while. People talked about 'yummy mummies' - that is,
the perfectly-groomed woman who goes to yoga classes, stays slim, has
clean children and has a four-wheel-drive. And other usages came in too
- 'I've got a very yummy job', people might say, and recently, I heard
somebody talking about somebody who had a very yummy blog on the
internet - in that sense, it means, sort of, delightful and attractive,
rather than delicious.

Well, 'scrummy', anyway became modelled on 'yummy'. It developed in
the early 20th century some years later, again, originally with
reference to food - scrumptious, you see, it's a derivation from that
word, which means delicious. People talked about 'scrummy cakes' and
'scrummy recipes', and then, started using it as an adjective too, more
than 'yummy' did, you know, 'that was scrummier', 'this is scrummiest'.
I have heard 'yummier' and 'yummiest', but 'scrummier' and 'scrummiest'
seems to be more common! Something 'sounds scrummy'. There are 'scrummy
TV shows' now. The word, evidently, has moved on!




Downloads

Transcript (pdf - 31 K)

Lesson plan - Teacher's notes, student worksheets with answers (pdf - 71 K)

Audio - Professor David Crystal on "Yummy and scrummy" (mp3 - 577 K)


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happyboy1992
Người bí ẩn
Người bí ẩn

Nam
Tổng số bài gửi : 711
Age : 24
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Nghề : Học sinh
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Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Would / going to

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 19/5/2008, 11:40 am

Naser:
I would like to know what is the difference between would and is going to, for instance:
How long would it take? and How long is going to take?
Another example:
It would effect you and It is going to effect you

Many thanks

Catherine Chapman answers::

Hello Naser and thanks very much for your question! Now, first of all, before we answer your question, I'd like to have a quick look at the grammar of what you wrote. We need to add a subject to your sentence. You said How long is going to take? and in fact we need a subject in there so it would say How long is it going to take? And regarding your use of the word effect, you need to use it with an a not an e.

Right, now we've sorted your questions out, let's have a look at the difference between the two forms, that's would and going to. And here we've got an example conversation:

Woman: I've just heard - my PhD proposal's been accepted! I'm going to start my research next year.
Man: How exciting! How long is it going to take?

The woman has used going to because she's talking about future plans, that's things which are definitely going to happen. So the man also uses going to because he's asking for more information about the plans.

Now, we can also use going to, not just for certainties but for things which are probably going to happen. So, sometimes we use going to with 1st conditional sentences to express a strong possibility or probability. Here's an example:

If you drink the whole bottle of medicine, it is going to affect you very badly.

And that was a 1st conditional sentence with if and present simple with going to, which shows the likely result.

We can also use modal verbs and first conditionals, like this:

If you drink the whole bottle of medicine, it might affect you very badly.

So the modal verb with that 1st conditional sentence is might, and it shows quite a strong possibility.

Now let's have a look at the modal verb would. And here's an example dialogue:
Woman: Are you thinking of doing a masters' degree?
Man: Oh, they're so expensive! I can't afford to stop work, so I'd have to do it part-time.
Woman: Part-time? How long would it take?

Now this time, we're not talking about plans, and we're not talking about strong possibilities or something that's probably going to happen. With this sentence, we're talking about possibilities, things we're thinking about, but we haven't made a plan about them. So, in this situation, we use modal verbs like would and could to express the idea of smaller possibility, or improbability, or even impossibility, like we do with 2nd conditionals. Here's an example of a 2nd conditional with would to express a small possibility:

If you drank the whole bottle of medicine, it would affect you very badly.

The difference, then, between would and going to: going to we often use for plans, or things that we think are probably going to happen, like we do with 1st conditional sentences. But for things which are less likely to happen, impossible, improbable or even just talking about dreams and ideas, we use 2nd conditional sentences and we use would.

Thanks for your question Naser, and I do hope my answer's going to be useful!

Listen and download

Real mp3 (1 MB) Transcript (50 K)


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chu y Animal idioms

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 20/6/2008, 7:18 pm


fly-on-the-wall (adj)


By
using concealed cameras, fly-on-the-wall television programmes or films
show people doing what they normally do every day. Big Brother is a
good example of this type of reality TV programme. We use the
expression fly-on-the-wall because if a fly settles on your wall at
home, you do not normally notice it. Note that fly on the wall is also
used as a compound noun:

I'd like to have been a fly on the wall when your boss heard he'd been fired.






We use many animal idioms in English.
Here are a selection of those involving both larger and smaller animals.
How many of these do you know?
Explanations provided beneath examples of use where meaning is not so obvious.


LARGER MAMMALS




a bull / bear market
take the bull by the horns
do the donkey work
flog a dead horse
the lion's share
a stag night


The bull market of the Eighties and Nineties is unlikely to return for some time.
I decided to take the bull by the horns and tell him he was upsetting Jane.
If you tell him to take it easy, he'll sit back and let you do all the donkey work.
Invest in shares and the chances are you'll be flogging a dead horse.
The lion's share of her money - over 80% - went to her nephews and nieces.
I'm having my stag night on the same day as my Sue is having her hen night.


bull market: situation where price of shares on the stock market are
rising (bear market: prices falling)
take the bull by the horns: face up to problem instead of avoiding it
donkey work: manual labour or jobs that are routine or least important
flog a dead horse: waste time on something unlikely to be successful
(flog = whip)
a stag night: a social/drinking evening for groom's male friends prior
to wedding (hen night = social/drinking evening for bride's female
friends)




SMALLER MAMMALS




keep the wolf from the door
dog tired
let sleeping dogs lie

let the cat out of the bag
cat nap smell a rat

If you can't get a better job, you won't be able to keep the wolf from the door.
He was dog tired - out on call all night and then took surgery in the morning.
She doesn't need to know he's been unfaithful. Let sleeping dogs lie.
He couldn't keep it secret, let the cat out of the bag and told her everything.
I like to cat nap for half an hour after lunch.
They intended to trick him but they were always larking about and he smelt a rat .


keep the wolf from the door: earn enough to buy food and other essentials
let sleeping dogs lie: not interfere; not mention something that could cause trouble
let the cat out of the bag: reveal a secret
smell a rat: sense that something is wrong (lark about: behave in playful, childish way)





BIRDS and FISH




a wild goose chase
up with the lark
chicken out
a fish out of water
a cold fish
have other fish to fry

I didn't know her flight number so trying to find Amy at Heathrow was a bit of a wild goose chase.
We'll have to be up with the lark tomorrow - the flight leaves at seven thirty.
They are short of funds so I think they're going to chicken out of this project.
I didn't know anyone at the reception so felt like a fish out of water.
He showed no emotion at this aunt's funeral - he's s cold sort of fish.
They wanted me to join them on this project but I told them I had other fish to fry.


a wild goose chase: a search that has no chance of success
chicken out: stop participating in something which is too dangerous or difficult.
have other fish to fry: have other things to do or more important matters to attend to.






INSECTS





a fly in the ointment
not hurt a fly
no flies on someone
a busy bee
have a bee in your bonnet
the bee's knees
It will be an exciting trip.

The only fly in the ointment is that Sue can't drive.
He has an awful temper but he wouldn't hurt a fly.
There are no flies on Jacob - he is fully aware of all aspects of the operation.
She's a busy bee all right - if there's a job to do, she just has to get on with it.
She's got a bee in her bonnet about eating raw fish to stay fit and healthy.
With her first class honours degree and job with the UN, she thinks she's the bee' knees.


a fly in the ointment: a difficulty which prevents total enjoyment
no flies on someone: said of someone who is alert and clever, not easy to deceive
have a bee in your bonnet: be obsessed with something (bonnet = hat)
the bee's knees: someone who thinks they are very clever and important


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conan
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chu y Eminent and prominent

Bài gửi by conan on 5/10/2008, 9:12 pm

Eminent and prominent are both adjectives, and they can both be used to talk about people who are very well-known and successful in their profession. Here are some example sentences:

The proposal for the research centre has the backing of Sir David Jones, one of the world's most eminent statisticians.

As a prominent local businessman, Mr Johnson served on many committees and was elected to be the chair of the board of governors.

Eminent contains the idea of respected. For example, if a doctor is very well qualified, has had a lot of success in his or her career and is often asked to give advice to other doctors because he or she is known to be so good at the job, we can describe them as eminent.

Prominent has the idea of being well-known and important. Bill Gates is a prominent figure in the world of computers, for example.

Now, it's possible to be a prominent person without being eminent, since eminence depends on respect which is earned through skill, education, public recognition. For example, a pop star might be prominent but they probably wouldn't be described as eminent.

And prominent has a couple of other meanings as well. It can mean 'easy to see or notice'. For example, we could say:

His arm was badly cut in the accident and he has been left with a prominent scar.

And a further meaning of prominent is 'sticking out', for example:

The builders did a really bad job. The floor was very uneven and there was a prominent bump in one of the walls.

So, let’s summarise. Prominent means well-known, noticeable and important. Eminent means highly qualified, successful and respected.

Right, I hope that answers your question, Javed, and I hope that you become both prominent and eminent one day!


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chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by conan on 5/10/2008, 9:17 pm



Dhaka traffic

This week's programme takes us into the heart of one of the busiest and
noisiest parts of the world! Jackie and Senjuti are in downtown Dhaka
among the cars and rickshaws, discussing a topic that's not going
anywhere fast: traffic!

This week's question: Many cities in the world have introduced a 'congestion charge'. But which of these cities does NOT have a congestion charge?
a) Stockholm

b) Singapore

c) Geneva

Vocabulary from the program

a congestion charge

a charge you have to pay for driving your car into a certain area - the aim of congestion charges is usually to reduce traffic

a traffic jam

when a lot of vehicles are close together and can't move or can only move very slowly

chaos

a state of confusion and disorder

to feel frustrated

to be annoyed, usually because you can't achieve something that you want to achieve

tedious

very boring

Extras

Download this programme (mp3 - 2.9 MB)

Programme script (pdf - 23 K)


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happyboy1992
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chu y Work out

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 8/11/2008, 10:35 am

I can't understand the phrasal verb work out. For me it is used when people go to a gym. But in Flatmates episode 131 a person says: I'm sure you'll work out fine. What does it means?

I hope you can help. A big hug, Fabio.
Hi Fabio and thanks for your question! Now, one of the reasons learners of English say that they find phrasal verbs difficult is that one phrasal verb can have several meanings. And work out is a very good example of this. Here are some of the many meanings of work out:

  • Firstly, in episode 131 of the Flatmates, Tim’s got a new job, and one of his customers gives him support and encouragement by saying I'm sure you'll work out fine. Now in this context, work out means ‘to be effective, satisfactory or to have a good result’.


  • But if you work out in the gym for an hour every day, work out means ‘to take strenuous and systematic exercise’.

Well, those are the two meanings that you were talking about, but work out has yet more meanings:

  • For example, it means ‘to discuss something in order to come to an agreement’, for example:

We’ve only been sharing the flat for a few days. We haven't worked out who’s going to do which bits of housework yet.

  • And work out can also mean ‘to do a calculation’:

I've added up all the household expenses and divided them between the three of us and it works out at £63 a month each.

  • And another meaning of work out means ‘solve a problem’. For example, if you’re reading a newspaper in English and you’ve come across a word that you don’t know the meaning of, you can read the sentence, look at the context in which the word appears, and through context you can solve the problem of the unknown meaning, you can work it out.

And this last meaning of work out provides some really good advice on how to cope with these phrasal verbs which have lots of different meanings. What you have to do is look at the context surrounding the phrasal verb and try to work out what it means from the situation and the words that it appears with. For example, most people know that the phrasal verb get up means to leave your bed in the morning because you’ve woken up - I get up every day at about seven o’clock. But if you see a sentence like this,
The children were playing in the garden. I knew they were getting up to no good when I saw one of them covered in mud. Their parents were furious!
-it’s quite obvious from this situation that get up doesn’t mean ‘get out of bed’. But you can work out from this situation – they were playing in the garden, they were covered in mud, their parents were furious – you can work out that get up to means ‘do something that you’re not supposed to do’.
Now, let’s have a little bit of practice. You’re going to hear two sentences, both of them using the phrasal verb get off. But in which sentence does get off mean ‘avoid punishment’ and in which sentence does it mean ‘stop touching something’? Listen to the first one:
Will you get your feet off the table, please!
And here’s the second one:
He was very lucky. Even though he’d stolen a lot of money, he got off with a fine. He should really have been sent to prison!
So, in the first sentence, get off means ‘stop touching something’ and in the second one it means ‘avoid punishment’.
OK, let’s have another go. You’re going to hear two more sentences, this time using the verb put down. But in which sentence does put down mean ‘publicly criticise’ and in which sentence does put down mean ‘humanely kill an animal to end its suffering’?
I don't know why she stays with him. He hardly ever takes her out and he's always putting her down in front of other people.
And the second one:
We had to get our pet dog put down last week. It had stomach cancer.
So in the first one, put down means ‘publicly criticise’ and [in] the second one, put down means ‘humanely kill an animal to end its suffering’.
OK then Fabio, I hope that you’ve learned today that phrasal verbs can have lots of different meanings and that context is absolutely vital for working out what the different meanings are. You can also help yourself to understand phrasal verbs by buying a really good English-English learner dictionary, which have lots of definitions and example sentences too. So, good luck Fabio with phrasal verbs.


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chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 8/11/2008, 11:00 am

'to work out' means 'to discuss something in order to come to an agreement'.
'to put down' means 'to kill an animal humanely to end its suffering'.
'to put someone down' means 'to criticise them in public'.
'to get something off' means 'to remove', 'to stop touching'.
'to get off' means 'to escape punishment'.


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Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 20/11/2008, 6:49 pm

<tr vAlign=top><td colSpan=5>What to wear?
<table cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=208 align=right border=0><tr><td bgColor=#ffffff rowSpan=2></TD>
<td>
</TD></TR></TABLE>

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One of the biggest shocks when you arrive in a new country can be the clothes people are wearing. You may look fashionable at home, but you suddenly find you are behind the times or simply someone to laugh at when you arrive abroad. With this in mind, let's take a look at teenage fashion in the UK for girls.

One of the things that may shock an outsider most is piercings. These days it is not enough to simply wear rings in your ears. You will see many teenagers with rings in their navel, or belly button, nose, lip, or even their eyebrow. Ouch!

Some girls go for a 'glam' look. They wear T-shirts; trousers are usually preferred, blue or black, and the look is finished off with metallic bags and shoes and arms full of bracelets. Another alternative is the 'rocker' look. You start with a T-shirt of your favourite band and tight jeans or a long skirt. On top of this you can wear a denim jacket. Jewellery tends to be large and metallic, and to add colour, wear a scarf.

If neither of these is for you, why not go 'sporty'? T-shirts are usually tie-dyed in hot colours. Wear long shorts, short jeans or a denim skirt. And on your feet? Beach sandals, of course! If you prefer something more feminine, there's the 'girly' look. Skirts are long, to the floor. Wear a top with butterflies or flowers printed on it!

Finally, how about the 'Tom Boy' look? Wear flared jeans and a T-shirt with a logo. Don't forget your waistcoat, of course!

Follow the fashion tips above, and you shouldn't feel out of place. However, it's important to remember to wear clothes and choose a look that you feel comfortable with. Don't just be one of the crowd – be yourself!





Vocabulary

behind the times
out-of-date, unfashionable, not modern


piercings
holes made in the body for wearing jewellery, such as rings or studs

glam
short for 'glamorous', i.e. dressed and/or made up to be extremely good-looking and very fashionable

finished off
completed, given final touches

rocker
someone who really likes rock music (and dresses like a rock music fan)

denim
a thick strong cotton cloth, often blue in colour, used especially for making jeans

scarf
a piece of cloth worn around the neck

tie-dyed
designs on cloth dyed by tightly tying portions of it with waxed thread so the dye only affects the exposed areas

sandals
light open shoes with straps

flared
(trousers or skirts) that widen significantly below the knee (popular in the late 1960s - early 1970s)

waistcoat
a sleeveless garment worn on the upper body over a shirt and usually having buttons down the front

out of place
strange, as if you don't belong


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happyboy1992
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Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y Re: English for everyday

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 15/12/2008, 4:55 pm

Vocabulary

religious
following a system of beliefs and practices relating to God


watch out
mind you; be prepared

on the way
approaching, drawing closer

cheesy
of cheap quality or bad in style

carols
traditional and/or religious songs that people sing at Christmas

Christmas hats
hats with pointy tips, usually red in colour and with some fur around them, traditionally worn at Christmas for fun

wrapping paper
decorated paper used to cover presents

apart from
here, in addition to

Santa Claus
the imaginary jolly old man with a white beard and a red suit who brings presents to children at Christmas

Christmassy
relating to Christmas and capturing/representing the jolly mood of the season

build-up
anticipation, increasing feeling as a high point (here, Christmas celebrations) approaches

overeating
eating too much


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happyboy1992
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Registration date : 22/08/2007

chu y imperative

Bài gửi by happyboy1992 on 25/4/2011, 12:33 am

We can use the imperative to give a direct order.

  • Take that chewing gum out of your mouth.
  • Stand up straight.
  • Give me the details.

We can use the imperative to give instructions.

  • Open your book.
  • Take two tablets every evening.
  • Take a left and then a right.


We can use the imperative to make an invitation.

  • Come in and sit down. Make yourself at home.
  • Please start without me. I'll be there shortly.
  • Have a piece of this cake. It's delicious.

We can use the imperative on signs and notices.

  • Push.
  • Do not use.
  • Insert one dollar.

We can use the imperative to give friendly informal advice.


  • Speak to him. Tell him how you feel.
  • Have a quiet word with her about it.
  • Don't go. Stay at home and rest up. Get some sleep and recover.

We can make the imperative 'more polite' by adding 'do'.

  • Do be quiet.
  • Do come.
  • Do sit down.


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